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memorial2 nWe mark the passing of those who have served this country on the next page. Contributions from comrades and relatives welcome - email the editor This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

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s200 gary.buschby Dr Gary Busch (June 2020)


With its dependence on raw materials extraction and their export to fund its defence and international ambitions, as well as meet the needs of its people, the Russian economy has been hit by falling prices globally and the impact of global warming, particularly in the multi-time zone vastness that is Siberia

The first signs of the effects of global warming on the economy were the large numbers of explosions in Siberian mines due to the release of methane gas due to global warming after 2017. An explosion in the Severnaya coal mine, in Vorkuta, left four people dead and twenty-six stranded some eight hundred meters below the surface; another explosion, three days later, killed six rescue workers and condemned to death the miners in the inaccessible shaft. A Russian government commission investigating the disaster said that they would authorise the flooding of the mine to extinguish the methane-induced fire. They agreed to flooding it with water and figured that it would take sixty to eighty days to extinguish.

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A quick guide to understanding the puzzle (EDGE3)

Edoardo del PrincipeIMG E6202by Edoardo Del Principe MA, with additional material by Arianna Comis MA and Robin Ashby

Contents

Introduction
CSDP Institutional Framework: Agencies and Actors
Key Points in Modern CSDP: Defence Market and Strategies
Active Missions and Operations: EU in Action
European Defence and New Challenges

Introduction

Around 5,000 EU citizens are currently involved in 6 military and 10 non-military CSDP (Common Security and Defence Policy) missions. But what is it, and why is it important?

The CSDP is the best known part of the European foreign policy and also the most discussed because of the objective it has of preserving peace and long term stability in the EU.

CSDP missions had a key role in the last year's political agenda of the Member States with the failing EU NAVFOR MED Op Sophia in the Mediterranean Sea and EUBAM Libya, tackling the refugees crossing crisis.

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By Tatiana Rita de Moraes MA
Tatiana-foto-ver-5Given the pressures, challenges, external threats and feelings of insecurity, will the evolution of the European security system, currently moving towards greater integration, eventually lead to the formation of shared defence or even a "European Army"? Is the latter a practical or politically possibility? (Throughout this paper, EU and Europe now mean the 27 member states – MS - of the European Union after the UK has left at the end of 2020)
Over the last 5 years, rapid steps so far involve the establishment of a European Defense Fund; the development of the Capacity Development Plan to define short, medium and long-term priorities; the adjustment of structures, including greater centralisation of information and a command structure for military operations initially non-executive, the Capacity for Planning and Conducting Military Actions; the Coordinated Annual Defense Review with a view to better coordination between countries; the Common Security and Defence Policy (see paper EDGE3 An introduction to CSDP by Edoardo del Principe) and, finally, the establishment of Permanent Structured Cooperation.

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EDlogodownloadThe COVID-19 pandemic, which has rocked the world, could prove to be one of those major upheavals capable of changing the face of the planet. Time alone will tell. At the very least, the pandemic raises issues with regard to the principles of solidarity, human dignity, freedom, democracy, rule of law and peace that are the founding values of the European Union.

The measures suggested here are designed to attenuate the impact of economic recession, while at the same time optimising defence and security capacities without encroaching on individual Member State's sovereignty.

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Russia has begun crew training for its new S-350 SAM (Surface to Air Missile) system, reports Strategy magazine. S-350 is a mobile, medium range missile system that replaces the S-300PS/PT system which entered service in the early 1980s and the Buk M1/2 which entered service in the 1990s. The S-350 is, in effect, "S-400 Lite". In other words a less expensive SAM system with many S-400 capabilities but not the billion dollar per battery price. S-350 also benefitted from a joint Russia-South Korea effort to develop a new air defense system. That effort eventually fell apart but not before each nation went on their way with valuable tech they had acquired from the other.

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TomSpencerIMG 1145In 1979, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) ambushed a British Army convoy at Warrenpoint with two improvised explosive devices (IED), killing 18 servicemen. This represented the British Army's single greatest loss of life throughout its campaign in Northern Ireland (N.I) – the Troubles, writes Tom Spencer. A similar device was also used the same day to murder Lord Mountbatten (a member of the British Royal Family, former senior Royal Navy officer and Chief of the Defence Staff). This paper underlines how the attack required new tactics, techniques and procedures in order to achieve the element of surprise and lethal precision. A pioneering use of remote detonation and potent home-made explosives (HME) had profound security implications. This precipitated an impetus for continuous British electronic IED counter-measures, border securitisation and a shift in strategy. A co-ordinated intelligence regime manifested itself as a war prosecuted through the use of special forces and covert mechanisms in gathering intelligence. These precedents created UK legacy expertise with which to counter insurgency and terrorism.

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memorial2 nWe mark the passing of those who have served this nation. Contributions from comrades and families welcome.

After the death of William Clark (below) it is believed that there is now only one survivor of "The Few" from the Battle of Britain - John Hemingway

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nickwattsIMG 20170907 0924504Europe's political landscape is in a state of profound flux, one that presents real challenges to those continental nations who see their interests best served by a combination of effective, geopolitically balanced European institutions and a robust transatlantic alliance. This is true for countries like Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands, countries notably effective in maintaining a sound balance between these two strategic principals.

The continent faces a plethora of disruptive and divisive dynamics. It is a focal point of Great Power aggression. Russia is using military force to revise European borders, and both Moscow and Beijing are using economic, cyber, and social media to sow discord within and across nations – and to pillage their economic assets. Populist movements, many fueled by Moscow, are undercutting commitment to both the European Union and NATO. On top of all this, economic fragility looms like a dark storm cloud over Europe.

In the future the EU political and economic power will decrease, but also the trans-Atlantic relation can deteriorate. This will affect the role of NATO. In the EU France and Germany will become more influential, if not preponderant, drivers of decisions within that institution. That too will leave the EU more vulnerable to bouts of anti-Americanism and to those who pursue EU "strategic autonomy" to weaken the role of NATO.

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